Synthesis of activated carbon electrodes from date seeds with a variety of separators for supercapacitor cell applications

Desmagrini Desmagrini, Awitdrus Awitdrus, Erman Taer, Rakhmawati Farma

Abstract


Abstrak. Karbon aktif yang berasal dari biomassa telah menjadi bahan elektroda paling kompetitif untuk superkapasitor karena sifatnya yang terbarukan dan berkelanjutan. Upaya optimalisasi dilakukan untuk proses pembuatan sel superkapasitor dengan memvariasikan separator agar dapat memperoleh kapasitansi spesifik yang tinggi. Biomassa biji kurma sebagai bahan dasar pembuatan elektroda karbon melalui proses prakarbonisasi, aktivasi kimia dengan aktivator KOH 0,3M, proses karbonisasi dengan suhu 650oC dialiri gas nitrogen. Penyusutan massa karbon sebesar 24,59%. Nilai densitas dari elektroda karbon setelah dilakukan proses karbonisasi adalah 0,852 g cm-3. Analisis struktur mikro menunjukkan bahwa elektroda karbon bersifat amorf ditunjukkan dengan adanya puncak pada sudut 2θ sekitar 24o dan 44o. Kapasitansi spesifik ditentukan dengan metode Cyclic Voltametry dan didapati sebesar 217,22; 176,18; dan 82,8 F/g masing-masing untuk variasi separator kertas whatman, kertas saring, dan membran telur ayam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada kertas whatman merupakan separator terbaik untuk elektroda karbon dari biji kurma. Oleh karena itu karbon aktif yang dibuat dari biji kurma dengan biaya rendah, ketersedian mudah, dan berkelanjutan dapat diaplikasikan sebagai bahan elektroda untuk superkapasitor.

Abstract. Activated carbon derived from biomass has become the most competitive electrode material for supercapacitors due to its renewable and sustainable nature. Optimization efforts are made for the process of making supercapacitor cells by varying the separator in order to obtain a high specific capacitance. Date seed biomass as the basic material for making carbon electrodes through a pre-carbonization process, chemical activation with a KOH activator of 0.3M, the carbonization process at a temperature of 650oC flowed with nitrogen gas. Shrinkage of carbon by 24.59%. The density value of the carbon electrode that was carried out by the carbonization process was 0.852 g.cm-3. The microstructure analysis showed that the carbon electrode was amorphous indicated by the presence of a peak at an angle of 2θ around 24o and 44o. Specific capacitance was determined by the Cyclic Voltametry method and was found to be 217.22, 176.18, and 82.8 F/g respectively for the Whatman paper, filter paper, and chicken egg membrane separator variations. The results showed that whatman paper was the best separator for carbon electrodes from date palm seeds. Therefore, activated carbon made from date seeds with low cost, easy availability, and sustainability can be applied as an electrode material for supercapacitors.

Keywords: Date seed, Activated Carbon, Supercapacitor, Carbon Electrode, Separator


Keywords


Elektroda Karbon, Karbon Aktif, Biji Kurma, Separator, Sel Superkapasitor

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