Nyak Mutia Ismail, Arisna Mukti, Marisa Yoestara, Hilda Delavari, Alireza Qadiri


TOEFL test is required as one of the standardized test in English proficiency for scholars worldwide, across cultures. This study is a pilot study conducted to see cultural bias contained in the TOEFL test in various TOEFL Preparation modules that are frequently used as the source of questions for TOEFL equivalent in Aceh. Descriptive content analysis was considered as a method that well-conforms the needs of this study. The data were taken from four different TOEFL modules—Cambridge TOEFL Preparation, Barron’s TOEFL Practice, Cliff’s TOEFL Practice, and Longman TOEFL practice module.—specifically scoped into reading section alone. Hence, the instruments involved in this study were the documents of TOEFL preparation module. The questions which indicate cultural bias are verified as the data of this study. Later on, the data analysis was carried out by employing three-step analysis by Miles, Huberman, and Saldana (2014). The result shows that from those four TOEFL modules, particularly in reading section, the quantities of biased items are not cautious for EFL TOEFL test-takers. However, future research covering the Listening and Structure and Written Expression sections should be taken into account.


Standardized test; TOEFL test; constructed bias; cultural bias; test bias

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