Tomi Arianto, Dairi Saptarindu Simanjuntak


The spirit of Mak Ungkai is begun to be forgotten and not widely known by the Malay people. The forbidden Malay traditions of the folklore are begun to fade. The society awareness and habits can be formed by inspiring and upholding of folklore as a local wisdom. Greimas Structuralism (Culler. 2004) and Garrards Ecocritics (2004) are two important theories dealing to this study. The study of narrative structure was used to dissect the spirit of the sea story. Eco-criticism was used to observe the interconnection between Malay folklore and the ecological wisdom. The coastal locals of Tanjung Kertang, Sebulang, Batam, Riau Islands were the informants. The results showed that the spirit of the sea Mak Ungkai story was inseparable from the local wisdom. The sea, as the central life of nature, was inseparable from human. The spirits of Mak Ungkai, Datuk Jerampang, and Awang Jangkung were not only as the antagonists but also as a part of nature. This story does not only present a frightening myth but it also shows how to maintain the balance of nature.


Nature; ecological wisdom; Malay folklore; spirit of the sea

Full Text:



BatamPos. (2017). Terumbu karang rusak dibom [Boombed and damaged coral reefs]. Batam Pos, p. 2. Retrieved from

BPS. (2017). Produksi tangkap menurut provinsi dan jenis penangkapan tahun 2000-2015 [Capture production by province and type of capture in 2000-2015]. Retrieved from https//

Bracke, A. (2018). Man is the story-telling animal: Graham Swift’s waterland, ecocriticism and narratology. ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment Environment, 27(2), 134–146.

Culler, J. (2004). The linguistic foundation (2nd Edition). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing;

Eki. (2012). Ekosistem Laut Kepri semakin kritis [The Kepri Sea ecosystem is critically increasing]. Isu Kepri, p. 4. Retrieved from

Faruk. (2012). Metode penelitian sastra: Sebuah penjelajahan awal [Literary research methods: An early exploration]. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Garrard, G. (2004). Ecocriticsm. New York: Routledge.

Glotfelty, C., & Fromm, H. (1996). The ecocriticism reader: Landmarks in literary ecology. Georgia: The University of Georgia Press.

Jumali. (2017). Peran pemerintah daerah dalam mengoptimalisasi penanganan pencemaran lingkungan di wilayah pesisir Kota Batam [The role of the local government in optimizing the handling of environmental pollution in the coastal area of Batam City]. Selat, 5(1), 25–35.

Lestari, U. F. (2018). Oral literature of Moi in Sentani Barat District, Jayapura Regency, Papua Province: Literary ecocriticism study. Yogyakaarta: UGM Press.

Ratna, N. (2013). Sastra dan cultural studies: Representasi fiksi dan fakta [Literature and cultural studies: Representations of fiction and facts]. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Sultzbach, E. K. (2017). Ecocriticism in the Modernist Imagination: Forster, Woolf, and Auden. ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment, 24(4), 834–835.

Taum, Y. Y. (2011). Studi sastra lisan: Sejarah, teori, metode, dan pendekatan disertai contoh penerapannya [Oral literary studies: History, theories, methods, and approaches accompanied by examples of their application]. Yogyakarta: Lamalera.


  • There are currently no refbacks.